South Sudan

Context analysis

South Sudan remains a dynamic operating environment in 2018 with over 100 humanitarians killed since 2013. In September 2018, armed actors signed a Revitalized Peace Agreement to resolve outstanding grievances that has driven conflict in South Sudan, particularly since 2016. Notwithstanding, factionalism amongst armed actors continues to contribute to the onset of clashes particularly in areas of southern Central Equatoria. To mitigate against this issue, armed actors have launched a series of measures to ensure that armed actors at the local level understand and adhere to the protocols of the agreement. Relatedly, influence remains diffuse with a complex set of factors characterizing the operating environment at the local level, leading to heightened sensitivity to triggers which can affect other areas due to the interconnected nature of power dynamics. Concurrently, continued economic difficulties continue to drive criminality which is a feature of most population centres where humanitarians operate.  

OPERATIONAL SINCE
2018

INSO FACTS & FIGURES

STAFF
NGO
MEMBERS


Gross Incident Rate

Jul to Oct 2018

The Gross Incident Rate (GIR) consists of all security incidents recorded and reported by INSO in this country for the stated period with no disaggregation or exclusion. It includes conflict and criminal related incidents; serious (i.e. bombings) and non-serious events (i.e. demonstrations); and both security improving (i.e. arrests/seizures) and security-deteriorating incidents (i.e. attacks). The Gross Incident Rate is valuable in providing a snapshot of the overall level of volatility in the country.  It is not valuable in assessing the specific risk to NGOs and/or whether a situation is becoming better or worse as changes in the GIR may be caused by both positive (more arrests) or negative (more attacks) trends.
Total
Jul to Oct 2018
Total incidents recorded in South Sudan this year to date. Updated monthly.



INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jul to Oct 2018
Total incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.



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AUTHOR
Jul to Oct 2018
Percentage of incidents by author* (arrests, government security operations, armed opposition, tribal and criminal activity). Updated monthly.

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0
NO DATA

NGO INCIDENT Rate

Jul to Oct 2018

The NGO Incident Rate (NIR) comprises a gross count of all incidents that involved an NGO in this country for the stated time period. It includes both criminal and conflict related events; serious (i.e. killings/abductions) and non-serious (i.e. threats, petty robbery) incidents; and occurrences of both direct, indirect and/or accidental/collateral involvement. The NIR is valuable in evaluating NGO general exposure to ambient insecurity in this country and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where the NIR shows no clear pattern over time, specific NGO targeting is assumed not to be present however it is important to remember that rate changes are also affected by per-capita density and NGO mobility. Neither INSO nor any other entity we are aware of has meaningful data on these two components, meaning that numbers should be taken as gross indicators only.  
Total
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO incidents in South Sudan this year to date. Updated monthly.
NGO INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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Type
Jul to Oct 2018

0
NO DATA

NGO Fatality Rate

Jul to Oct 2018

The NGO Fatality Rate (NFR) comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been killed or died in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross organisations only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both criminal and conflict related causes; targeted and accidental deaths and all types of weapons/tactics. The NGO Fatality Rate works with the NIR and is valuable in determining the likelihood of this most serious result and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where there is no clear upwards trend in NGO deaths, we assess that systematic targeting of NGOs does not exist and that deaths rather occur as a result of exposure to ambient insecurity albeit with occasional targeted events.
Total
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO fatalities in South Sudan this year to date. Updated monthly.


NGO FATALITIES
PER MONTH
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO fatalities per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jul to Oct 2018
Percentage of national and international NGO staff fatalities. Updated monthly.


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0
NO DATA

NGO Injury Rate

Jul to Oct 2018

The NGO Injury Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been injured in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both accidental and deliberate causes. In the case where an individual subsequently dies from their injuries, they have been removed from this count and added to the NFR.
Total
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO injuries in South Sudan this year to date. Updated monthly.


NGO INJURIES
PER MONTH
Jul to Oct 2018

NATIONALITY
Jul to Oct 2018

0
NO DATA

NGO Abduction Rate

Jul to Oct 2018

The NGO Abduction Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been abducted in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. For this purpose "abduction" includes all cases of NGO workers being taken against their will and unlawfully for any purpose and for any duration. Some abductions turn in to kidnapping (where political or criminal demands are made) and some in to detentions (where the victim is released without demand).
Total
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO abductions in Nigeria this year to date. Updated monthly.

NGO ABDUCTIONS
PER MONTH
Jul to Oct 2018
Total NGO abductions per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jul to Oct 2018
Percentage of national and international NGO staff abductions. Updated monthly.


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0
NO DATA
REPORTS SENT
ALERTS SENT
NGO ROUNDTABLES HOSTED
ORIENTATION BRIEFING
INSO NGO Service: Jul to Oct 2018

Key Risks & Mitigation Measures

Risk

Diffusion of influence characterizes the operating environment amongst both traditional and formal centres of power. This presents challenges in developing effective stakeholder engagement and acceptance strategies. This has sometimes led to negative perceptions of humanitarians and resultant negative impact on NGOs.

Risk

While formal and informal influence is diffused throughout the country, they are also highly interconnected leading to heightened sensitivity to triggers and possibility for spillover. Incidents or developments in one area can quickly trigger disruptions to the operating environment in other areas or lead to rapid escalations in risk. 

Risk

Criminality continues to be the most prominent source of risk affecting NGOs. Prevailing economic conditions coupled with high exposure of NGOs has resulted in incidents ranging from petty criminality to more impactful incidents while in-transit.  

Mitigation

It is imperative that NGOs devote considerable resources to actor mapping and stakeholder engagement. Acceptance strategies form the core of programming activities in the operating environment and require that implementing agencies possess a strong understanding of who key stakeholders are, their interests, and power dynamics in their areas of intervention. 

Mitigation

NGOs must work to ensure that contingency planning is both flexible and adapted to the environment given the possibility for sudden shifts. While NGOs take great care to ensure they understand the operating environment and possible triggers for rapid change, the possibility always remains that unforeseen events or incidents will require immediate action from NGOs to enhance safety and risk management. 

Mitigation

Ensure that staff take basic precautions, particularly with managing exposure and their profiles. This may include varying movement times, implementing curfews, SOPs particular to cash related activities, or limiting the display of valuables. Further, NGO management should ensure that robust SOPs are in-place to regularize profile management and reduce exposure. 

Risk

Diffusion of influence characterizes the operating environment amongst both traditional and formal centres of power. This presents challenges in developing effective stakeholder engagement and acceptance strategies. This has sometimes led to negative perceptions of humanitarians and resultant negative impact on NGOs.

Mitigation

It is imperative that NGOs devote considerable resources to actor mapping and stakeholder engagement. Acceptance strategies form the core of programming activities in the operating environment and require that implementing agencies possess a strong understanding of who key stakeholders are, their interests, and power dynamics in their areas of intervention. 


Risk

While formal and informal influence is diffused throughout the country, they are also highly interconnected leading to heightened sensitivity to triggers and possibility for spillover. Incidents or developments in one area can quickly trigger disruptions to the operating environment in other areas or lead to rapid escalations in risk. 

Mitigation

NGOs must work to ensure that contingency planning is both flexible and adapted to the environment given the possibility for sudden shifts. While NGOs take great care to ensure they understand the operating environment and possible triggers for rapid change, the possibility always remains that unforeseen events or incidents will require immediate action from NGOs to enhance safety and risk management. 


Risk

Criminality continues to be the most prominent source of risk affecting NGOs. Prevailing economic conditions coupled with high exposure of NGOs has resulted in incidents ranging from petty criminality to more impactful incidents while in-transit.  

Mitigation

Ensure that staff take basic precautions, particularly with managing exposure and their profiles. This may include varying movement times, implementing curfews, SOPs particular to cash related activities, or limiting the display of valuables. Further, NGO management should ensure that robust SOPs are in-place to regularize profile management and reduce exposure.