Central African Republic

Context analysis

Central African Republic remains one of the most fragile countries in the world. A long history of political instability and micro-conflict characterize the security situation in CAR. The country never fully recovered from the March 2013 coup d'état conducted by the Séléka - a coalition of several armed groups. The hopes of political stability and restoration of State authority after the 2016 elections have been slow to materialize leaving a plethora of armed groups fighting for the control of resources and land. The insecurity has led to a major humanitarian crisis. As of November 2018, more than 600,000 people were internally displaced and more than 500,000 refugees in neighbouring countries (source: OCHA). The insecurity remains a major operational constraint for NGOs. With an average of one NGO incident per day, mostly criminality, INSO CAR ranks first among the 11 high-risk countries monitored by INSO for the NGO incident rate.

OPERATIONAL SINCE
2014

INSO FACTS & FIGURES

71
STAFF
65
NGO
MEMBERS
2.9 M
People in need
(OCHA)

Gross Incident Rate

Jan to Dec 2018

The Gross Incident Rate (GIR) consists of all security incidents recorded and reported by INSO in this country for the stated period with no disaggregation or exclusion. It includes conflict and criminal related incidents; serious (i.e. bombings) and non-serious events (i.e. demonstrations); and both security improving (i.e. arrests/seizures) and security-deteriorating incidents (i.e. attacks). The Gross Incident Rate is valuable in providing a snapshot of the overall level of volatility in the country.  It is not valuable in assessing the specific risk to NGOs and/or whether a situation is becoming better or worse as changes in the GIR may be caused by both positive (more arrests) or negative (more attacks) trends.
TOTAL
Jan to Dec 2018
Total incidents recorded in CAR this year to date. Updated monthly.




4651
INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jan to Dec 2018
Total incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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AUTHOR
Jan to Dec 2018
Percentage of incidents by author* 
(conflict / criminal). Updated monthly.


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NGO INCIDENT Rate

Jan to Dec 2018

The NGO Incident Rate (NIR) comprises a gross count of all incidents that involved an NGO in this country for the stated time period. It includes both criminal and conflict related events; serious (i.e. killings/abductions) and non-serious (i.e. threats, petty robbery) incidents; and occurrences of both direct, indirect and/or accidental/collateral involvement. The NIR is valuable in evaluating NGO general exposure to ambient insecurity in this country and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where the NIR shows no clear pattern over time, specific NGO targeting is assumed not to be present however it is important to remember that rate changes are also affected by per-capita density and NGO mobility. Neither INSO nor any other entity we are aware of has meaningful data on these two components, meaning that numbers should be taken as gross indicators only.  


TOTAL
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO incidents in CAR this year to date. Updated monthly.



395
NGO INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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TYPE
Jan to Dec 2018
Percentage of incidents by type* (SAF, IED, intimidation etc). Updated monthly.


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NGO Fatality Rate

Jan to Dec 2018

The NGO Fatality Rate (NFR) comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been killed or died in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross organisations only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both criminal and conflict related causes; targeted and accidental deaths and all types of weapons/tactics. The NGO Fatality Rate works with the NIR and is valuable in determining the likelihood of this most serious result and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where there is no clear upwards trend in NGO deaths, we assess that systematic targeting of NGOs does not exist and that deaths rather occur as a result of exposure to ambient insecurity albeit with occasional targeted events.

TOTAL
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO fatalities in CAR this year to date. Updated monthly.




8
NGO FATALITIES
PER MONTH
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO fatalities per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jan to Dec 2018
Percentage of national and international NGO staff fatalities. Updated monthly.

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NGO Injury Rate

Jan to Dec 2018

The NGO Injury Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been injured in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both accidental and deliberate causes. In the case where an individual subsequently dies from their injuries, they have been removed from this count and added to the NFR.
TOTAL
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO injuries in CAR this year to date. Updated monthly.




33
NGO INJURIES
PER MONTH
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO injuries per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jan to Dec 2018
Percentage of national and international NGO staff injuries. Updated monthly.

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NGO Abduction Rate

Jan to Dec 2018

The NGO Abduction Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been abducted in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. For this purpose "abduction" includes all cases of NGO workers being taken against their will and unlawfully for any purpose and for any duration. Some abductions turn in to kidnapping (where political or criminal demands are made) and some in to detentions (where the victim is released without demand).
Total
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO abductions in CAR this year to date. Updated monthly.




3
NGO ABDUCTIONS
PER MONTH
Jan to Dec 2018
Total NGO abductions per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jan to Dec 2018
Percentage of national and international NGO staff abductions. Updated monthly.


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ALERTS SENT
270
REPORTS SENT
311
NGO ROUNDTABLES HOSTED
127
ORIENTATION BRIEFING
9
INSO NGO Service Register: Jan to Dec 2018

Key Risks & Mitigation Measures

Risk

Ambient criminality targeting of NGO compounds, vehicles and staff.

Risk

Misperception and threats to NGOs workers or to the NGO community in general: Confusion created by International Forces deployment has been found to affect NGOs in the frame of their activities.

Risk

Staff health: There is a high prevalence of disease (such as malaria), poor access to health care, poor hygiene and sanitation. The capacities of health facilities and staff outside of Bangui are very low.

Mitigation

Ensure that passive security measures are in place in NGO compounds and that staff take basic precautions including varying movement times, not displaying valuables, not communicating about road movements. Brief all staff on how to react during a road ambush or any other security incident in order to avoid aggression or violence.

Mitigation

NGO staff are exposed to high prevalence of malaria and other diseases caused by poor access to health care and poor hygiene and sanitation. The capacities of health facilities outside of Bangui are very low.

Mitigation

Ensure all staff have had a health briefing on risks and basic precautions and the proper installation and use of mosquito nets. Install first aid kits in each vehicle and base (office and guesthouse). Identify health staff and facilities at local, provincial, national and international level. Establish health evacuation capacities (with NGO, UN and/or private transport).

Risk

Ambient criminality targeting of NGO compounds, vehicles and staff.

Mitigation

Ensure that passive security measures are in place in NGO compounds and that staff take basic precautions including varying movement times, not displaying valuables, not communicating about road movements. Brief all staff on how to react during a road ambush or any other security incident in order to avoid aggression or violence.


Risk

Misperception and threats to NGOs workers or to the NGO community in general: Confusion created by International Forces deployment has been found to affect NGOs in the frame of their activities.

Mitigation

NGO staff are exposed to high prevalence of malaria and other diseases caused by poor access to health care and poor hygiene and sanitation. The capacities of health facilities outside of Bangui are very low.


Risk

Staff health: There is a high prevalence of disease (such as malaria), poor access to health care, poor hygiene and sanitation. The capacities of health facilities and staff outside of Bangui are very low.

Mitigation

Ensure all staff have had a health briefing on risks and basic precautions and the proper installation and use of mosquito nets. Install first aid kits in each vehicle and base (office and guesthouse). Identify health staff and facilities at local, provincial, national and international level. Establish health evacuation capacities (with NGO, UN and/or private transport).