Iraq

Context analysis

An estimated 3.5 million people in Iraq are displaced by violence and conflict, 3.1 million Iraqis living outside areas of government control face disruption to essential services and the loss of livelihoods and 1.5 million in host communities are now in need of assistance, on top of which the conflict in Syria has seen 215,000 people take refuge in Iraq. By September 2014 fighters led by ISIL/ISIS seized the city of Mosul and declared a caliphate across Iraq and Syria in the name of the Islamic State. Iraqi security forces, supported by international governments, embarked on ground operations against Islamic State and affiliated forces.  An international coalition of nations is providing tactical and operational support to Iraqi and Kurdish forces in a fight against Islamic State and its aligned forces. The humanitarian situation in 2015, compounded by the long term effects of generations of instability and the most recent decade of war, is dictated by political and sectarian instability and violence. A stark deterioration is observed in the situation in the central region especially in the Al-Anbar, Salah Al-Din and Diyala governorates, and in the northern areas particularly in Kirkuk and Ninewa governorates. While frontlines are beginning to move in favour of Iraqi and Kurdistan regional governments, due to a more cohesive operation by Iraqi and Kurdish forces supported by coalition support, the status quos that preceded and new political and territorial changes represent new risks. In 2015 humanitarian organisations and national NGOs and civil society that are focused on contested areas, who are proximate to battlegrounds, and will operate in formerly inaccessible areas, must navigate a variety of dangers and uncertainties.  

OPERATIONAL SINCE
2014

INSO FACTS & FIGURES

27
STAFF
153
NGO
MEMBERS
11 M
People in need
(OCHA)

Gross Incident Rate

Jan to Aug 2017

The Gross Incident Rate (GIR) consists of all security incidents recorded and reported by INSO in this country for the stated period with no disaggregation or exclusion. It includes conflict and criminal related incidents; serious (i.e. bombings) and non-serious events (i.e. demonstrations); and both security improving (i.e. arrests/seizures) and security-deteriorating incidents (i.e. attacks). The Gross Incident Rate is valuable in providing a snapshot of the overall level of volatility in the country.  It is not valuable in assessing the specific risk to NGOs and/or whether a situation is becoming better or worse as changes in the GIR may be caused by both positive (more arrests) or negative (more attacks) trends.
Total
Jan to Aug 2017
Total incidents recorded in Iraq this year to date. Updated monthly.




25569
INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jan to Aug 2017
Total incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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AUTHOR
Jan to Aug 2017
Percentage of incidents by author* 
(conflict / criminal). Updated monthly.


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NGO INCIDENT Rate

Jan to Aug 2017

The NGO Incident Rate (NIR) comprises a gross count of all incidents that involved an NGO in this country for the stated time period. It includes both criminal and conflict related events; serious (i.e. killings/abductions) and non-serious (i.e. threats, petty robbery) incidents; and occurrences of both direct, indirect and/or accidental/collateral involvement. The NIR is valuable in evaluating NGO general exposure to ambient insecurity in this country and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where the NIR shows no clear pattern over time, specific NGO targeting is assumed not to be present however it is important to remember that rate changes are also affected by per-capita density and NGO mobility. Neither INSO nor any other entity we are aware of has meaningful data on these two components, meaning that numbers should be taken as gross indicators only.  

Total
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO incidents in Iraq this year to date. Updated monthly.




31
NGO INCIDENTS
PER MONTH
Jan to Jul 2017
Total NGO incidents per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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Type
Jan to Aug 2017
Percentage of incidents by type* (SAF, IED, intimidation etc). Updated monthly.


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NGO Fatality Rate

Jan to Aug 2017

The NGO Fatality Rate (NFR) comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been killed or died in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross organisations only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both criminal and conflict related causes; targeted and accidental deaths and all types of weapons/tactics. The NGO Fatality Rate works with the NIR and is valuable in determining the likelihood of this most serious result and whether there is a negative or positive directional trend over time. Where there is no clear upwards trend in NGO deaths, we assess that systematic targeting of NGOs does not exist and that deaths rather occur as a result of exposure to ambient insecurity albeit with occasional targeted events.

Total
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO fatalities in Iraq this year to date. Updated monthly.




0
NGO FATALITIES
PER MONTH
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO fatalities per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


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NATIONALITY
Jan to Aug 2017
Percentage of national and international NGO staff fatalities. Updated monthly.


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0
NO DATA

NGO Injury Rate

Jan to Aug 2017

The NGO Injury Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been injured in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. The count includes both accidental and deliberate causes. In the case where an individual subsequently dies from their injuries, they have been removed from this count and added to the NFR.
Total
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO injuries in Iraq this year to date. Updated monthly.




0
NGO INJURIES
PER MONTH
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO injuries per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


Roll mouse over chart for exact numbers.


NATIONALITY
Jan to Aug 2017
Percentage of national and international NGO staff injuries. Updated monthly.


Roll mouse over chart for exact percentages.

0
NO DATA

NGO Abduction Rate

Jan to Aug 2017

The NGO Abduction Rate comprises a total count of all NGO workers that have been abducted in this country for the stated period. The count includes the national and international staff of NGOs and the Red Cross Red Crescent Movement only and does not include the staff of the United Nations unless otherwise stated. For this purpose "abduction" includes all cases of NGO workers being taken against their will and unlawfully for any purpose and for any duration. Some abductions turn in to kidnapping (where political or criminal demands are made) and some in to detentions (where the victim is released without demand).
Total
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO abductions in Iraq this year to date. Updated monthly.




0
NGO ABDUCTIONS
PER MONTH
Jan to Aug 2017
Total NGO abductions per month for the current year to date. Updated monthly.


Roll mouse over chart for exact numbers.


NATIONALITY
Jan to Aug 2017
Percentage of national and international NGO staff abductions. Updated monthly.


Roll mouse over chart for exact percentages.

0
NO DATA
ALERTS SENT
158
REPORTS SENT
663
NGO ROUNDTABLES HOSTED
45
ORIENTATION BRIEFINGS
9
INSO NGO Service Register: Jan to Aug 2017

Key Risks & Mitigation Measures

Risk

Travel: Long distance travel plays an important role in NGO operations. However, road conditions, traffic patterns and safety as well as security incidents may increase risk to NGO personnel. Also, local travel, by foot or by vehicles such as taxis, may increase exposure of personnel to harassment.

Risk

Collateral risk: In specific areas of central Iraq, collateral risk from both personal and organised conflict poses a threat to NGO personnel. The security environment varies widely throughout Iraq with large areas of central and southern Iraq experiencing dynamic conflict and consistent insecurity. However, areas of the Kurdish Region of Iraq also contain territories that experience localised and organised conflict.

Risk

Misperceptions or negative perceptions of NGO programming among local actors: General issues of cultural sensitivity can frequently become an issue in areas where NGOs operate, particularly in humanitarian hubs with high concentrations of organisations.

Mitigation

Properly trained English speaking drivers are highly advised. Maintaining up-to-date information on road conditions, locations of legitimate checkpoints and security incidents on or near routes is essential for safe travel. For both long distance and local travel, having a staff driver is highly recommended. For those that do not have access to a dedicated staff driver, it is advisable to travel in groups of 2 or more people if using a taxi and to identify and use a trusted driver. Avoid using taxis or travelling by foot during later hours.

Mitigation

As a precautionary measure, in these specific areas, humanitarian organisations are advised to consider government and security facilities, vehicles exhibiting heightened security measures, religious establishments, and large events to have potential as high value targets. Humanitarian organisations should plan their movements accordingly to reduce exposure to such locations.

Mitigation

Whilst seemingly obvious, perceptions of NGOs must be constantly ascertained and actively managed. Consistent outreach to local actors and community leaders is essential in order to to develop effective relationships and mitigate against potential grievances felt within the local community.

Risk

Travel: Long distance travel plays an important role in NGO operations. However, road conditions, traffic patterns and safety as well as security incidents may increase risk to NGO personnel. Also, local travel, by foot or by vehicles such as taxis, may increase exposure of personnel to harassment.

Mitigation

Properly trained English speaking drivers are highly advised. Maintaining up-to-date information on road conditions, locations of legitimate checkpoints and security incidents on or near routes is essential for safe travel. For both long distance and local travel, having a staff driver is highly recommended. For those that do not have access to a dedicated staff driver, it is advisable to travel in groups of 2 or more people if using a taxi and to identify and use a trusted driver. Avoid using taxis or travelling by foot during later hours.


Risk

Collateral risk: In specific areas of central Iraq, collateral risk from both personal and organised conflict poses a threat to NGO personnel. The security environment varies widely throughout Iraq with large areas of central and southern Iraq experiencing dynamic conflict and consistent insecurity. However, areas of the Kurdish Region of Iraq also contain territories that experience localised and organised conflict.

Mitigation

As a precautionary measure, in these specific areas, humanitarian organisations are advised to consider government and security facilities, vehicles exhibiting heightened security measures, religious establishments, and large events to have potential as high value targets. Humanitarian organisations should plan their movements accordingly to reduce exposure to such locations.


Risk

Misperceptions or negative perceptions of NGO programming among local actors: General issues of cultural sensitivity can frequently become an issue in areas where NGOs operate, particularly in humanitarian hubs with high concentrations of organisations.

Mitigation

Whilst seemingly obvious, perceptions of NGOs must be constantly ascertained and actively managed. Consistent outreach to local actors and community leaders is essential in order to to develop effective relationships and mitigate against potential grievances felt within the local community.